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The Karl Gustav Wars

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In 1657 catastrophe struck the Danish kingdom. Denmark declared war on Sweden in the hope of revenge of the defeat from the 1640´s. Instead Denmark was overpowered in the summer of 1657 and the following winter, where Karl X Gustav went over the ice to Zealand and hastily approached Copenhagen.

The Karl Gustav Wars 1657-60
In 1657 disaster struck the Danish kingdom with a vengeance. Denmark declared war on Sweden in the hope of revenging the defeat form the 1640´s, but was run down in the summer of 1657 and the following winter, when Karl X Gustav went over the ice to Zealand and approached Copenhagen. A quick peace was made in Roskilde. The peace negotiator on the Swedish side was the former Danish chancellor Corfitz Ulfeldt, who was married to Christian IV´s daughter, Eleonore Christine.
The peace terms were severe: Denmark must forever give up the Scanian countries, although paragraph 9 secured a cultural autonomy in Scania. The occupation ended with a so-called peace banquet in Frederiksborg Castle, whereupon the Swedish king went to Scania, where he inspected the captured areas.
Karl X Gustav
Karl X Gustav
Crossing the Ice to Funen
Crossing the Ice to Funen
Ivernæs in Funen
Ivernæs in Funen
Erik Dahlberg
Erik Dahlberg
Karl X Gustav at Storebælt
Karl X Gustav at Storebælt
LargeOversæt

The Peace in Roskilde
The peace terms were severe: Denmark must forever give up the Scanian countries, although paragraph 9 secured a cultural autonomy in Scania. The occupation ended with a so-called peace banquet in Frederiksborg Castle, whereupon the Swedish king went to Scania, where he inspected the captured areas.
The Peace in Roskilde
The Peace in Roskilde
The Vicarage in Høje Tåstrup
The Vicarage in Høje Tåstrup
Joachim Gersdorf
Joachim Gersdorf
Corfitz Ulfeldt
Corfitz Ulfeldt
The Arrival at Frederiksborg Castle
The Arrival at Frederiksborg Castle
Frederiksborg Castle (section)
Frederiksborg Castle (section)
Frederiksborg Castle (section)
Frederiksborg Castle (section)
Frederiksborg Castle (section)
Frederiksborg Castle (section)
Frederiksborg Castle (section)
Frederiksborg Castle (section)
The Party at Frederiksborg Castle
The Party at Frederiksborg Castle
Karl X Gustav in Elsinore
Karl X Gustav in Elsinore
Karl X Gustav is Received in Helsingborg
Karl X Gustav is Received in Helsingborg
Karl X Gustav Arrives in Landskrona
Karl X Gustav Arrives in Landskrona
Karl X Gustav Arrives in Malmo
Karl X Gustav Arrives in Malmo
Karl X Gustav Outside Christiansstad
Karl X Gustav Outside Christiansstad
Scania 1662
Scania 1662

The War continues
Six months later Karl X Gustav regretted that he did not annex all of Denmark. He occupied Zealand and captured Elsinore and Kronborg, which fell after a three-weeks´ siege.
Copenhagen was besieged, but was relieved after a naval battle in the Sound by a Dutch fleet, which had formed an alliance with Denmark. The events culminated with the storm of Copenhagen in February 1659, when the Swedish attack was repelled.
The Siege of Kronborg<br>
The Siege of Kronborg
The Siege of Kronborg
The Siege of Kronborg
The Naval Battle
The Naval Battle
The Battle in the Sound
The Battle in the Sound
The Battle of the Sound
The Battle of the Sound
Slaget i Öresund<br>(Tegning)
Slaget i Öresund
(Tegning)
The Assault on Copenhagen 1660
The Assault on Copenhagen 1660
The Storming of Copenhagen
The Storming of Copenhagen
Sketch of the Attack
Sketch of the Attack
Instant Sketch
Instant Sketch
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The Peace
Peace was made once again in 1660, by which Bornholm returned to Denmark and Trondhjem´s estate to Norway.
Changes in the status of Scania, Halland and Blekinge were not discussed and it was clear that Denmark´s ally, Holland and the other European big powers, did not want any changes in the relations around the Sound. The manoeuvre of the international politics was to prevent one power to control both sides of the Sound.
A later observer, Robert Molesworth noticed in 1691 that Christian IV was favoured by the Dutch war against Spain and that king Jacob I of England favoured the Danes, because of his marriage to a Danish princess. Molesworth noticed that Danish sovereignty over the Sound would correspond to Spain having invoked power over the Straits of Gibraltar and the entrance to the Mediterranean. The Sound Duty was still functioning, but the income, according to Molesworth, had dropped from 150.000 rix-dollars in 1645 to 80.000 in the 1690´s.
Axel Urup (1601-71)
Axel Urup (1601-71)
The Peace Treaty 1660
The Peace Treaty 1660

©  Øresundstid 2009