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Time of Christian d.4.

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The age of Christian IV is marked by magnificent new buildings, the establishing of new towns, trade companies, but also by recurring wars and religious orthodoxy.

Part of the income came from recurring increases of the Sound Duty.

Trade and magnificent buildings

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During the reign of Christian IV mercantilism was the leading economic pricipal. The state supported a number of enterprises and trade increased.

During the reign of Christian IV several magnificent buildings were constructed. They were characterized by a mixture of red bricks and sandstone framings. The style came to be called the style of Christian IV.

Christian IV
Christian IV came to power in 1588, but because he was very young a regency governed until 1596. Then he signed his coronation charter and entered the throne the next year. This happened at a coronation ceremony, where the parliament, by touching the crown, symbolically handed over the power to the king. The kingdom that Christian IV took over was still essentially medieval and feudal. The major part of the population, perhaps 90% were still living in the country and agriculture was the economic backbone of the country.
Christian IV
Christian IV

The Will to Develop
Still the time of Christian IV was marked by new creations. He saw it as his most important task to modernize and develop his kingdom, a task, which was also laid down the coronation charter from August 17th 1596.
The country was still ruled by the feudal idea that all wealth and success come from the earth and the acquiring of land, but Christian also tried to improve the state of the country in many other ways.

Trade Companies
To further this several trade companies were established, which were to tend to the trade with America and India. The first East Indian Company was founded in 1618 as a private company after Dutch model. Colonies and trade stations were established in many places and the trade with for instance Iceland and the Faeroe Islands were monopolized.
They created companies in new areas, like mining in Norway, but also the processing of raw materials, like when a fabric production was started in Copenhagen. The state supported everything actively with capital or through monopolies and privileges. However, these measures were not enough to change the society thoroughly.

The Capital
The king and thus also the state power and the administration became more resident i Copenhagen. Certainly the king at the same time extended his properties in North Zealand and he often stayed there, but he created connections to Copenhagen by building so-called King´s roads, so he could get quickly to and from the capital.
The navy and other and other armament activities played an important part in the capital. The naval dockyard was far and away the largest enterprise in the country.
Copenhagen 1587
Copenhagen 1587
Copenhagen 1611
Copenhagen 1611
The Expansive Copenhagen
The Expansive Copenhagen
Copenhagen 1674
Copenhagen 1674
Holmen
Holmen
Copenhagen Outside the Stock Exchange
Copenhagen Outside the Stock Exchange
Copenhagen with the Stock Exchange
Copenhagen with the Stock Exchange
Rundetårn (The Round Tower)
Rundetårn (The Round Tower)

Rosenborg Castle
Another example is Rosenborg Castle, which was built in 1605-1634 with constant changes in the building plans. The castle developed into a mixture of intimate private residence and magnificent representation palace, where the king impressed his guests with clever music installations.
After the building of the castle plans are made for a systematic building of an adjoining garden layout. A sketch from the year 1649 exists, which shows a typical Renaissance layout with low, geometrical beds. In 1647 the first garden book, Horticultura Danica is published and there is information of ordered plants for the Rosenborg Garden.
Christian IV
Christian IV
Rosenborg
Rosenborg
Rosenborg Garden
Rosenborg Garden
Horticultura1647
Horticultura1647
Garden Work
Garden Work
Grafting
Grafting
Vine
Vine
The King´s Garden
The King´s Garden

Frederiksborg Castle
He continued in his father´s steps and continued building in North Zealand, and began around 1600 a rebuilding of Frederiksborg Castle, so it had a more uniform look. The large castle was finished in 1626. If Kronborg appeared as a closed fortification, Frederiksborg Castle had a large open courtyard, where the fountain and the surrounding buildings gave a more open, more representative and modern impression.
But the castle had simultaneously lost its significance as a fortification and instead functioned as a magnificent frame for the royal power.
Like Frederik II built his summer castle near Kronborg, Christian IV built a house next to Frederiksborg Castle, which was called ”Sparepenge” and even ”The Bath”, where it was more comfortable and informal to stay.
Frederiksborg is built in Dutch renaissance with towers and spires with richly decorated house ends.
Frederiksborg Castle
Frederiksborg Castle
Frederiksborg Castle
Frederiksborg Castle
The Audience Gate
The Audience Gate
Iron Grating
Iron Grating
FrdgSlot
FrdgSlot

Renaessance Style
Frederiksborg is built in Dutch renaissance with towers and spires with richly decorated house ends.In the time of Christian IV the characteristic mixture of red bricks and decorative sandstone bands, which is seen on many of the royal and noble buildings of the time, was developed. Like Frederik II built his summer castle near Kronborg, Christian IV built a house next to Frederiksborg Castle, which was called ”Sparepenge” and even ”The Bath”, where it was more comfortable and informal to stay.
Frederiksborg Castle
Frederiksborg Castle
The Summer House
The Summer House
The Trinity Church
The Trinity Church

The Kalmar War and the Horn War

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At the end of the 1630´s the Danish king convinced the chancellery and the estates of the realm to establish a standing army, which was financed through a considerable raise of the Sound Duty. This made the Netherlands form an alliance with Sweden, which were disastrous to Denmark.

War and City Plans
Around the year 1600 the Dutchmen were responsible for around 80 % of the yearly ship tonnage through the Sound. Thus it was of vital importance to maintain good relations with the Dutchmen. However the perpetual increase of the Sound Duty and crises situations, where ships were arrested was a thorn in the side of the Dutch and other shipping nations.
Especially the relationship with Sweden was problematic. The Swedish economy flourished with export of raw materials like iron, minerals, wood for ship building and agricultural goods from the southern areas, but Sweden felt fenced in by the Danish Baltic Sea empire.

The Kalmar War 1611-13
The Danish and Swedish chancellors prevented further confrontations for a time, but the ambitious Danish king, Christian IV (1588-1648) aspired to “propagate, improve and enhance the state of the country”, as it was stated in the coronation charter that he had to sign at his accession. It was this passage in the coronation charter Christian used in his request to the chancellery January 31. 1611, when he referred to Swedish violations, which he would not stand for:
“...as it would bring about in posterity a bad memory in Our grave, because We have tolerated and allowed that, which a lawful king must not allow or tolerate and which We have sworn at our coronation and coronation charter and have promised by name and by seal...”
The alleged violations related to the conditions in northern Scandinavia, including Sweden´s access to the Norwegian Sea. The chancellors were reluctant, but when the king threatened to declare war in his capacity as duke of Slesvig-Holstein, he had his way.
Map from around 1600
Map from around 1600
Map Dedicated to Gustav II Adolf
Map Dedicated to Gustav II Adolf
Christian IV
Christian IV
Christian IV´s Flagship
Christian IV´s Flagship
The Fortress Varberg
The Fortress Varberg
The Siege of Kalmar
The Siege of Kalmar

Scania was ravaged
This time too, it was mostly the civilian population that suffered. Scania was ravaged by Gustav Adolf in 1612 and he himself said:
“We have been in Scania and we have burned most of the province, so that 24 parishes and the town of Vä lie in ashes. We have met no resistance, neither from cavalry nor footmen, so we have been able to rage, plunder, burn and kill to our hearts´ content. We had thought of visiting Århus in the same way, but when it was brought to our knowledge that there were Danish cavalry in the town, we set out for Markaryd and we could destroy and ravage as we went along and everything turned out lucky for us.”
Christian IV won the Kalmar War, but this time too the civilian population paid a heavy price. After the war Christian IV started the building of a number of fortified towns, which could protect the civilian population in wartime. The market towns Vä and Åhus in north-eastern Scania were abandoned and instead the fortified town of Christiansstad was built. In Blekinge Christianobel was founded and in Halland Halmstad was fortified.
At the peace in Knärød in 1613 Denmark took over the fortress of Elvsborg until a compensation of 1.000.000 rix-dollars was paid. Holland´s policy was that no big power should have total control of the Baltic. Therefore the Danish victory led to the signing of a Swedish-Dutch defence alliance in The Hague in 1614.
The Peace in Knærød 1613
The Peace in Knærød 1613
The Swedish Instrument of Debt
The Swedish Instrument of Debt

Kristianstad
The increasing central governing meant that a number of new towns were founded, often for military reasons. The most prominent became Kristianstad in northwestern Scania. The market towns Vä and Åhus were shut down and they built an entirely new town, which better could withstand the attacks of the Swedes in the area. Dutch experts were called in and in 1614 they started to build a town with perpendicular streets surrounded by fortified bastions.
The town also had a magnificent church, the Trinity Church, which is considered one of the main works of the Christian IV period. It was built in the renaissance architecture of the time and was inaugurated in 1628.
The church has an equilateral Greek cross. There are a number of slender granite pillars, which carry a very elaborate roof construction. The opulent altar in black alabaster and white marble was made in the Netherlands. The organ is a brilliant renaissance work of art.
Kristianstad
Kristianstad
The Fortress Christiansstad
The Fortress Christiansstad
Christianopel
Christianopel
The Trinity Church
The Trinity Church
The Church Room
The Church Room
The Trinity Church
The Trinity Church
The Side Entrance
The Side Entrance
Ornate Baroque
Ornate Baroque
Monogram
Monogram

Sweden dominates
The next time Christian IV wanted to go to war was when he in 1626 involved himself in the Thirty Years´ War and that same year was defeated ignominiously at Lutter am Barenberge. This time Christian IV had gone to war in his capacity as North German duke and on his own account, that is, with a mercenary army. This ended in disaster and Denmark was now seriously weakened, whereas Sweden was victorious in the Baltic area.
By the end of the 1630´s the Danish king convinced the Chancellery and the Estates of the Realm to establish a standing army, which was financed through a considerable raise of the Sound Duty.
From 1636 to 1639 the king´s income from the Sound Duty rose from 266.000 to 620.000 rix-dollars.
In the course of the 1640´s war and recession set in. Around this time the value of the corn export was about 400.000 rix-dollar a year, the steer export was around 50.000 stk. a year, while the value of the yearly import constituted around 400.000 rix-dollar.

The Horn War 1643-45
As a reaction to the continued increase of the Sound Duty, the Netherlands entered into a mutual defence and alliance treaty with Sweden, which became disastrous, when Sweden without warning attacked Denmark in 1634 from the south. Jutland was occupied, but at first the navy prevented a total disaster. In Scania field marshal Gustav Horn began a campaign and Denmark was threatened by war on two fronts. The province was ravaged once again and the Horn War was remembered for many years the.
The united Dutch-Swedish fleet defeated the Danes at Fehmern and at the peace in Brömsebro in 1645 the Danes had to give up Gotland, Øsel, Jemtland and Herjedalen in Norway and surrender Halland to Sweden for a period of 30 years. This was the beginning to the end of the Danish Baltic reign and at the same time the prosperity of the period of Christian IV ended with his death in 1648.
Danish naval control
Danish naval control
Sound Duty gambling
Sound Duty gambling
Three Fleets in the Sound 1644
Three Fleets in the Sound 1644
Gustav Horn
Gustav Horn
Kolberger Heide 1644
Kolberger Heide 1644
Brömsebro
Brömsebro
The Brömsebro Stone
The Brömsebro Stone

Administration and Court

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The cities had a certain administration of justice and liberty of action via the city courts and the artisans´ guilds. But the tendency after the Reformation was more regulation from central quarters.

At the top was the king’s court and then the absolute royal power.

Administration and Administration of Justice (GB)
In addition to the internal administration of justice, which was exercised in the guilds, it was the town´s council, which from the beginning took care of the judicial matters and the administration in the town. They did not yet discern between the administrative/ executive and the judicial power. The daily administration took place in the council room and here they also passed sentences and interrogated witnesses. In some cases the used juries and sentences could then be appealed to the parliament and ultimately to the king´s court.

Oversæt
Until 1619 the town government consisted of two mayors and aldermen, who were selv-sufficient and solely represented the upper classes. In addition the town council appointed town bailiff, who dealt specifically with practical assignments. He could also engage different ”civil servants” like workhouse principal, executioner, midwife a.s.o. At a random day 6.12.1562 the following are present in the council hall:

"Thenn 12. dag junij, neruerinndis paa raadstuenn her y Hellssinngør Hendrich Moenssen och Hanns Pouillssen, borgmestere, Annders Saxenn, Jacop Hanssen, Rassmus Hanssen och Jørgenn Wiig, raadmendt, Jenns Jepssenn, byfogit, mett noger aff borgernne."
Valuation cases, inheritance questions and other elucidations of financial claims are fixed items on the agenda, and cases concerning trade also appear frequently.
Elsinore Town Hall
Elsinore Town Hall

The public Moral
The council also took up matters regarding law and order and supervision of the public morals. The protocol from June 12th 1562 testifies to this:
A Scotsman by the name of Thomas Væver complained that his neighbour Mikael Skrædder´s wife, Charinne, ”often greets him with scolding and improper adress” Thomas therefore threathened to take her before the council, to which Charinne allegedly answered that she did not give a damn about him , mayor and council (”... you and they are just like turds”). The mayor asked Thomas Væver to prove this and he called upojn two witnesses, who confirmed his allegations. Rasmus Olsen Bager could add that he the other night saw Charinne go home in the evening with ”... a man, who was wating for her in an alley and followed her into the house...” The mayor told the good men to remeber this incident another time.

Prostitution
The suggested that Charinne was a woman of easy virtue and that was not very sensational in a town, where prostitution was so extensive that they had to send the entire regiment of women packing. Poor womaen, who had to do anything to survive was probably the most exposed group in the society. it is often women from this group we meet in the witch trials, which become more and more common during the renaissance.
Prostitution
Prostitution
The Sword of the Executioner
The Sword of the Executioner

Actions against Witches

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Witch trials was found sporadically in Elsinore in the time after the reformation (1564, 1571 and 1582), but after the centennial the number grew and culminated with an entensive trial in 1625-26, where no less than eight women were sentenced and burned at the stake.

Witch Trials
Witch trials was found sporadically in Elsinore in the time after the reformation (1564, 1571 and 1582), but after the centennial the number grew and culminated with an entensive trial in 1625-26, where no less than eight women were sentenced and burned at the stake.
The witch trials connection to the changed view of man and the changes the reformation brought with it, are still subject to research and debate, but some enlightening fasct can bepointed out. The witchcraft trials almost entirely struck women from the lowest classes in society.
The Witch´s Test
The Witch´s Test

White and Black Magic
In the Middle Ages they discerned between white and black magic. The black is used to hurt others. The white magic, which is used positively for the solving of porblems, was not deemed harmful. Furthermore it was hard to discern from the medieval medicine of the magical conception of reality, which was prevalent in the Catholic church.
The reformation brought with a reaction against the reality perceptin of the Catholic church. Faith and salvation suddenly became a matter of the individual. In any ways a void ensued, where supernatural interpretations and explanations no longer existed. They were against old theories, but did nog replace them with new ones.
Witch  Goya
Witch Goya

The Character of the Processes
In the time before the reformation the witch trials became solely a secular affair and in Denmark they created a tradition for the accusatory legal process, where there had to be a direct accusation from a civilian person.
In Christian III´s so-called Copenhagen Recess from 1547 it was established that persons, who was tainted in some way, was not allowed to bear witness and that torture was not allowed in order to force a confession.In 1576 it was decided that sentences, where people was sentenced to be burned at the stake, always had to be tried in higher court.
In 1617 Christian IV issued a proclamation on witchcraft. According to this you could be tried for witchcraft even if no one had been harmed. It was also a criminal offence to use the services of ”wise” men and women. If you had exerted witchcraft without harming anybody you could be punished with loss of property and valuables, but if you had harmed anyone the punishment was the stake.
Witches burnt at the stake
Witches burnt at the stake

©  Øresundstid 2009