Skip Navigation Links
Main page
History
Themes
Tourism
Education
Search
Temaer
Skip Navigation Links
HistoryExpand History
Skip Navigation Links
ThemesExpand Themes
TourismExpand Tourism
EducationExpand Education

Skip Navigation Links
Picture categoryExpand Picture category
Skip Navigation Links
Time lineExpand Time line

Limited Contacts

*

After Sweden´s conquests in the 17th century, it became the dominating power in the North and the Baltic. Sweden was surrounded by countries, which wanted their lost areas back. Among these Denmark, Russia and Saxony (including Poland) formed and alliance against Sweden.

The Karl Gustav Wars 1657-60
In 1657 disaster struck the Danish kingdom with a vengeance. Denmark declared war on Sweden in the hope of revenging the defeat form the 1640´s, but was run down in the summer of 1657 and the following winter, when Karl X Gustav went over the ice to Zealand and approached Copenhagen. A quick peace was made in Roskilde. The peace negotiator on the Swedish side was the former Danish chancellor Corfitz Ulfeldt, who was married to Christian IV´s daughter, Eleonore Christine.
The peace terms were severe: Denmark must forever give up the Scanian countries, although paragraph 9 secured a cultural autonomy in Scania. The occupation ended with a so-called peace banquet in Frederiksborg Castle, whereupon the Swedish king went to Scania, where he inspected the captured areas.
Karl X Gustav
Karl X Gustav
Crossing the Ice to Funen
Crossing the Ice to Funen
Ivernæs in Funen
Ivernæs in Funen
Erik Dahlberg
Erik Dahlberg
Karl X Gustav at Storebælt
Karl X Gustav at Storebælt
LargeOversæt

The Roskildepeace
The peace terms were severe: Denmark must forever give up the Scanian countries, although paragraph 9 secured a cultural autonomy in Scania. The occupation ended with a so-called peace banquet in Frederiksborg Castle, whereupon the Swedish king went to Scania, where he inspected the captured areas.
The Peace in Roskilde
The Peace in Roskilde
The Vicarage in Høje Tåstrup
The Vicarage in Høje Tåstrup
Joachim Gersdorf
Joachim Gersdorf
Corfitz Ulfeldt
Corfitz Ulfeldt
The Arrival at Frederiksborg Castle
The Arrival at Frederiksborg Castle
The Peace Banquet
The Peace Banquet
Karl X Gustav in Elsinore
Karl X Gustav in Elsinore
Karl X Gustav is Received in Helsingborg
Karl X Gustav is Received in Helsingborg
Karl X Gustav Arrives in Landskrona
Karl X Gustav Arrives in Landskrona
Karl X Gustav Arrives in Malmo
Karl X Gustav Arrives in Malmo
Karl X Gustav Outside Christiansstad
Karl X Gustav Outside Christiansstad

The War continues
Six months later Karl X Gustav regretted that he did not annex all of Denmark. He occupied Zealand and captured Elsinore and Kronborg, which fell after a three-weeks´ siege.
Copenhagen was besieged, but was relieved after a naval battle in the Sound by a Dutch fleet, which had formed an alliance with Denmark. The events culminated with the storm of Copenhagen in February 1659, when the Swedish attack was repelled.
The Siege of Kronborg<br>
The Siege of Kronborg
The Siege of Kronborg
The Siege of Kronborg
The Naval Battle
The Naval Battle
The Battle in the Sound
The Battle in the Sound
The Battle of the Sound
The Battle of the Sound
Slaget i Öresund<br>(Tegning)
Slaget i Öresund
(Tegning)
The Assault on Copenhagen 1660
The Assault on Copenhagen 1660
The Storming of Copenhagen
The Storming of Copenhagen
Sketch of the Attack
Sketch of the Attack
Instant Sketch
Instant Sketch
An error has occurredAn error has occurred

The Peace
Peace was made once again in 1660, by which Bornholm returned to Denmark and Trondhjem´s estate to Norway.
Changes in the status of Scania, Halland and Blekinge were not discussed and it was clear that Denmark´s ally, Holland and the other European big powers, did not want any changes in the relations around the Sound. The manoeuvre of the international politics was to prevent one power to control both sides of the Sound.
A later observer, Robert Molesworth noticed in 1691 that Christian IV was favoured by the Dutch war against Spain and that king Jacob I of England favoured the Danes, because of his marriage to a Danish princess. Molesworth noticed that Danish sovereignty over the Sound would correspond to Spain having invoked power over the Straits of Gibraltar and the entrance to the Mediterranean. The Sound Duty was still functioning, but the income, according to Molesworth, had dropped from 150.000 rix-dollars in 1645 to 80.000 in the 1690´s.
Axel Urup (1601-71)
Axel Urup (1601-71)
The Peace Treaty 1660
The Peace Treaty 1660

Linné´s Scanian Journey 1749
A vicar´s son from Småland, well under way with a unusual scientific career in Uppsala, came to Scania in t1749. This Carl Linnaeus (ennobled to von Linné) had gone to Scania on a national economic assignment; sent out by the Swedish parliament. The goal was to map the resources of the province and suggest changes.
Linné was empirical and made, like Tycho Brahe, careful observations, but he was also very systematic and he wanted to arrange reality in a well-ordered system. He was a scientist in the spirit of the Enlightened Age.

Scania – an Isolated Region
Linné was to describe the natural resources of Scania and recommend steps, which could strengthen the economy of the province. Naturally Linné could not let go of botany, so he arranged and described the growth of plants in different places, but he was also interested in other things in the Scanian landscape.
Scania was still marked by the devastation and death, which had been caused by war and the plague. The province was far from the centre of the kingdom and was completely cut off from Denmark. It was an isolated region with too little contact to the outside world to grow and develop. Linné also thought that the Scanian farmers held on too stubbornly to old habits and were afraid of changes. The conservative peasants needed knowledge and modern agricultural methods.
Linné - a famous botanist
Linné - a famous botanist
Linné´s Birthplace in Råshult
Linné´s Birthplace in Råshult
Linné&#180s Journey
Linné´s Journey

The Fertility of Scania
Still Linné had many good things to say about Scania, which he considered Sweden´s, perhaps Europe´s, best cultivation area. On the climate in Malmo Linné wrote: “This is not any worse than in Holland. All the colour herbs and pharmaceutical herbs, which are planted and sold from Holland, could just as well grow here...” In Skanør too, he emphasized the advantages of the climate:
“I know of no country, which looks more like Zeeland in Holland in climate and soil, and I
cannot see why what grows in Holland could not be planted here; therefore plantations of colouring herbs and other economical herbs should be planted here.”
Thus Linné emphasized that the mild climate of Scania ought to be utilized better through the introduction of new financially beneficial plants, so they could avoid importing these plants from for instance Holland. Furthermore he could compare the herring to the Dutch. “The herring, which is caught at Kullen is hardly inferior to the Dutch herring as to size and fatness.”
Linné often compared with Holland. He had spent time in Holland for several years in the course of the 1730´s and had taken his doctor´s degree in medicine there as well as published a number of scientific writings.

Humidity, Shifting Sand and Mould Drift
Linné did not thrive on Scania´s damp autumn and the lack of firewood, something that he was not accustomed to in Småland and Uppsala.
“Here in Scania one notices that the clay walls spread a mouldy, damp and unpleasant smell, especially for one, which is not used to it and this vapour becomes more strong when it rains. In this plain landscape it is evident that we have an advantage in the north with lovely fireplaces, where wee dry our bodies in cold and damp weather.” At a visit in Herrestad Linné stated: “In this place the peasants´ houses, and often the squires´ too, mostly damp and filled with an infrequent nausea.”
The open plain landscape also held other problems: “Kämpinge Town in the south-western corner of Scania was plagued by shifting sand, which blew into town like big snowdrifts and ruined the farmers´ fields.” The problem existed in many places, and Linné took it very seriously. He mentioned the importance of the planting in order to dampen the shifting sand:
“The Dutch have employed this on their sand dunes. For this purpose they use a grass kind that they call crest. Around Ängelholm many and sparse plantations been laid out and these have, for a great part, had a
fortunate effect.”
Half-timbered House
Half-timbered House
Scanian House
Scanian House

Willow planting
Mould drift and drying up made up other problems in the Scanian plain, especially in high-situated fields. The solution for this was, according to Linné, to increase the planting of willows and other trees. This would dampen erosion, maintain moisture and additionally provide firewood for the heating of damp houses:
“Most important for the Scanian plain it that all dikes are planted with willows and other hardwood trees along the inner sides of the banks of earth. They will then gain a considerable strength and every third year branches can be cut and weaved into small fences, which can be set up on the banks. When these have worked for two years and become dilapidated, they can be used for firewood the third year, when the fields are laid out. Besides this such trees embellish the landscape, affords shelter form the wind, which dries up the soil and in an invisible dust takes away the finest mould and thus daily impoverishes the soil.”
“Willow planting is a necessity for Scania, without it the country will hardly be able to obtain its future livelihood.”

The Popular Traditions of Scania
In addition to all his records of how Scanian agriculture and economic life could be improved, Linné was also interested in the popular traditions of Scania. Here he describes the celebration of Midsummer Eve on the square in Skanør in 1749:
“The young farmhands and servant girls had gathered in the square. The boys had provided poles and the girls had provided flowers. The poles were chained together to a high mast with cross spears and in a couple of minutes the whole pole was covered with flowers and wreaths, which hung down from the end of the spears. The finished maypole, which was beautiful and magnificent, was put up with cries of joy and the youth danced around it all night, in spite of the rain.”
In Linné´s description of Midsummer in Skanør and Falsterbo, it is evident that the contact with Denmark had not been broken all together: People came from distant places, and formerly many came from Denmark.”
Midsummer Pole
Midsummer Pole

Linné – Also a Man of Trifles
Nothing was too small or too trivial for Linné. He writes from his stay in Malmo:
“Pencils from England of an unusual sort can be obtained at Mayor Borg. They could not be sharpened with a knife, only with the help of heat or light could you press them together with your fingers, and they smelled of sealing wax. This meant that they were made of graphite with very little resin. It would be useful for us, who are so well-supplied with lead ore, but still so little of graphite, which can be made into pencils.”
Linné had many great and small thoughts of Scania´s development.

©  Øresundstid 2009